Respiratory diseases are many and varied, some inherited and some caused by endemic factors. Chronic respiratory diseases, such as asthma, are responsible for over 3 million deaths per year. Three of the medications recently approved by COFEPRIS, Quinfort, Nucala and Innovair Nexthaler, address asthma. Two others, Ikel and Suuk, are targeted towards allergies. Other medications within this this group are Esbriet (Pirfenidone) for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and Troferit-Flow, a mixture of dropropizine and ambroxol for the treatment of respiratory diseases associated with an excess of mucus.
Asthma, a chronic disease that is characterized by the inflammation and narrowing of the airways, affects approximately 7 percent of Mexicans. Once the airways narrow, airflow to the lungs reduces, and this may lead to the production of mucus, which can further reduce airflow. The cause of asthma is unknown although it is theorized that the condition is caused by a mix of environmental and genetic factors. Asthma has no known cure, but can be managed through medication.
Innovair NEXThaler is an inhaler with a combination of beclometasone dipropionate anhydrous and formoterol fumarate dihydrate. The first is a corticosteroid that reduces inflammation in the lungs, while the second is a long-acting bronchodilator that relaxes the airway muscles to facilitate breathing. Innovair NEXThaler is aimed toward the treatment of asthma in adults.
Nucala (mepolizumab) is a humanized monoclonal antibody that “reduces severe asthma attacks by reducing the levels of blood eosinophils – a type of white blood cell that contributes to the development of asthma,” according to the FDA. This biomedicine is administered every four weeks through a sub-cutaneous injection and is used as an add-on medication for the treatment of asthma in patients over 12 years of age.
Beclomethasone dipropionate is an anti-inflammatory corticosteroid used to treat several kinds of inflammation. It can be used topically, intravenously, intranasally, orally and inhaled. Quinfort is an inhaler that uses beclomethasone dipropionate used for the management of asthma.
Allergies are abnormal reactions from the immune system to substances that would normally be considered innocuous. They can take many forms including food allergies, contact dermatitis, allergic asthma, anaphylaxis and allergic rhinitis. These chronic diseases are diagnosed mostly in childhood and young adulthood and their impact on individuals range from mild inconvenience to a deadly anaphylactic shock. It is estimated that 20 percent of Mexicans have at least one type of allergy. Two of the medications recently approved by COFEPRIS are used for allergen immunotherapy, a long-term treatment where individuals are exposed to increasing amounts of allergens to desensitize their immune system to the pathogen. Ikel for the immunotherapy of dermatophagoides, also known as house dust mites, and Suuk, a mixture of three common pollens: Holcus Lanatus, Phleum Pratense and Poa Pratensis.